Lynd Research Lab: Publications

160. Dale B.E., J.E. Anderson, R.C. Brown, S. Csonka, V.H. Dale, G. Herwick, R.D. Jackson, N. Jordan, S. Kaffka, K.L. Kline, L.R. Lynd, C. Malmstrom, R.G. Ong, T.L. Richard, C. Taylor, M.Q. Wang. 2014. Take a Closer Look: Biofuels Can Support Environmental, Economic and Social Goals. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:7200-7203. (Article)

159. Currie, D.H., A.M. Guss, C.D. Herring, R.J. Giannone, C.M. Johnson, P.K. Lankford, S.D. Brown, R.L. Hettich, L.R. Lynd. 2014. Profile of Secreted Hydrolases, Associated Proteins, and SlpA in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum during the Degradation of Hemicellulose. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80:5001-5011. (Abstract)

158. Archambault-Leger, V., L.R. Lynd. 2014. Fluid mechanics relevant to flow through pretreatment of cellulosic biomass. Bioresour. Technol. 157:278-283. (Article)

157. Reed, P.T., J.A. Izquierdo, L.R. Lynd. 2014. Cellulose fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum and a mixed consortium in an automated repetitive batch reactor. Bioresour. Technol. 155:50-56. (Article)

156. Laser, M., L.R. Lynd. 2014. Comparative efficiency and driving range of light- and heavy- duty vehicles powered with biomass energy stored in liquid fuels or batteries. PNAS. 111(9):3360-3364. (Abstract)

155. Bhandiwad, A., A.J. Shaw, A. Guss, A. Guseva, H. Bahl, L.R. Lynd. 2014. Metabolic engineering of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum for n-butanol production. Metab. Eng. 21:17-25. (Article)

154. St Brice, L.A., X. Shao, J.A. Izquierdo, L.R. Lynd. 2014. Optimization of affinity digestion for the isolation of cellulosomes from Clostridium thermocellum. Prep. Biochem. Biotech. 44(2):206-216. (Abstract)

153. Brown, S.D., D.M. Klingeman, C.M. Johnson, A. Clum, A. Aerts, A. Salamov, A. Sharma, M. Zane, K. Barry, I.V. Grigoriev, B.H. Davison, L.R. Lynd, P. Gilna, H. Hau, D.A. Hogsett, A.C. Froehlich. 2013. Genome Sequences of Industrially Relevant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain M3707, Isolated from a Sample of Distillers Yeast and Four Haploid Derivatives. Genome Announc. 1(3):e00323-13. (Abstract)

152. van der Veen, D., J. Lo, S.D. Brown, C.M. Johnson, T.J. Tschaplinski, M. Martin, N.L. Engle, R.A. van den Berg, A.D. Argyros, N.C. Caiazza, A.M. Guss, L.R. Lynd. 2013. Characterization of Clostridium thermocellum strains with disrupted fermentation end-product pathways. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 40(7):725-734. (Abstract)

151. Holwerda, E.K., L.R. Lynd. 2013. Testing alternative kinetic models for utilization of crystalline cellulose (Avicel) by batch cultures of Clostridium thermocellum. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 110(9):2389-2394. (Abstract)

150. Holwerda, E.K., L.D. Ellis, L.R. Lynd. 2013. Development and evaluation of methods to infer biosynthesis and substrate consumption in cultures of cellulolytic microorganisms. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 110(9):2380-2388. (Abstract)

149. Zhou, J., D.G. Olson, D.A. Argyros, Y. Deng, W.M. van Gulik, J.P. van Dijken, L.R. Lynd. 2013. Atypical glycolysis in Clostridium thermocellum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79(9):3000-3008. (Abstract)

148. Shao, X., L. Lynd. 2013. Kinetic modeling of xylan hydrolysis in co- and countercurrent liquid hot water flow-through pretreatments. Bioresour. Technol. 130:117-124. (Article)

147. Olson, D.G., R.J. Giannone, R.L. Hettich, L.R. Lynd. 2013. Role of the CipA scaffoldin protein in cellulose solubilization, as determined by targeted gene deletion and complementation in Clostridium thermocellum. J. Bacteriol. 195(4):733-739. (Abstract)

146. Deng, Y., D.G. Olson, J. Zhou, C.D. Herring, A.J. Shaw, L.R. Lynd. 2013. Redirecting carbon flux through exogenous pyruvate kinase to achieve high ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum. Metab. Eng. 15:151-158. (Article)

145. Waller, B.H., D.G. Olson, D.H. Currie, A.M. Gu, L.R. Lynd. 2013. Exchange of type II dockerin-containing subunits of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome as revealed by SNAP-tags. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 338(1):46-53. (Abstract)

144. Bhandiwad, A., A. Guseva, L. Lynd. 2013. Metabolic engineering of Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum for increased n-butanol production. Adv. Microbiol. 3:46-51. (Abstract)

143. Currie, D.H., C.D. Herring, A.M. Guss, D. Olson, D.A. Hogsett, L.R. Lynd. 2013. Functional heterologous expression of an engineered full length CipA from Clostridium thermocellum in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum. Biotechnol. Biofuels. 6:32. (Article)

142. Podkaminer, K.K., A.M. Guss, H.L. Trajano, D.A. Hogsett, L.R. Lynd. 2012. Characterization of xylan utilization and discovery of a new endoxylanase in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum through targeted gene deletions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78(23):8441-8447. (Abstract)

141. Archambault-Leger, V., X. Shao, L.R. Lynd. 2012. Integrated analysis of hydrothermal flow through pretreatment. Biotechnol. Biofuels. 5:49. (Article)

140. Olson, D.G., L.R. Lynd. 2012. Transformation of Clostridium thermocellum by electroporation. Method Enzymol. 510:317-330. (Abstract)

139. Izquierdo, J.A., L. Goodwin, K.W. Davenport, H. Teshima, D. Bruce, C. Detter, R. Tapia, S. Han, M. Land, L. Hauser, C.D. Jeffries, J. Han, S. Pitluck, M. Nolan, A. Chen, M. Huntemann, K. Mavromatis, N. Mikhailova, K. Liolios, T. Woyke, L.R. Lynd. 2012. Complete genome sequence of Clostridium clariflavum DSM 19732. Stand Genomic Sci. 6(1):104-115. (Abstract)

138. Podkaminer, K.K., W.R. Kenealy, C.D. Herring, D.A. Hogsett and L.R. Lynd. 2012. Ethanol and anaerobic conditions reversibly inhibit commercial cellulase activity in thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (tSSF). Biotechnol. Biofuels. 5:43. (Article)

137. You, C., X.-Z. Zhang, N. Sathitsuksanoh, L.R. Lynd,and Y.-H. P. Zhang. 2012. Enhanced microbial utilization of recalcitrant cellulose by an ex vivo cellulosome-microbe complex. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78(5):1437-1444. (Abstract)

136. Dumitrache, A., G. Wolfaardt, G. Allen, S.N. Liss and L.R. Lynd. 2012. Form and Function of Clostridium thermocellum Biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79(1):231-239. (Abstract)

135. Nair, S.S., S. Kang, X. Zhang, F.E . Miguez, R.C. Izaurralde W.M. Post, M.C. Dietze, L.R. Lynd and S.D. Wullschleger. 2012. Bioenergy crop models: descriptions, data requirements, and future challenges. GCB Bioenergy. 4(6):620-633. (Abstract)

134. Mearls, E.B., J.A. Izquierdo and L.R. Lynd. 2012. Formation and characterization of non-growth states in Clostridium thermocellum: spores and L-forms. BMC Microbiol. 12:180. (Abstract)

133. Holwerda, E.K., K.D. Hirst and L.R. Lynd. 2012. A defined growth medium with very low background carbon for culturing Clostridium thermocellum. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biot. 39(6):943-947. (Article)

132. Olson, D.G. and L.R. Lynd. 2012. Computational design and characterization of a temperature sensitive plasmid replicon for gram positive thermophiles. J. Biol. Eng. 6:5. (Abstract)

131. Guss, A.M., D.G. Olson, N.C. Caiazza and L.R. Lynd. 2012. Dcm methylation is detrimental to plasmid transformation in Clostridium thermocellum. Biotechnol. Biofuels. 5:30. (Abstract)

130. Argyros, D.A., S.A. Tripathi, T.F. Barrett, S.R. Rogers, L.F. Feinberg, D.G. Olson, J.M. Foden, B.B. Miller, L.R. Lynd, D.A. Hogsett and N.C. Caiazza. 2011. High ethanol titers from cellulose by using metabolically engineered thermophilic, anaerobic microbes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(23):8288-8294. (Article)

129. Olson, D.G., J.E. McBride, A.J. Shaw and L.R. Lynd. 2011. Recent progress in consolidated bioprocessing. Curr. Opin. Biotech. 23(3):396-405. (Article)

128. Ellis, L.D., E.K. Holwerda, D. Hogsett, S. Rogers, X. Shao, T. Tschaplinski, P. Thorne and L.R. Lynd. 2011. Closing the carbon balance for fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum (ATCC 27405). Bioresource Technol. 103(1):293-299. (Article)

127. Lynd, L.R., and J. Woods. 2011. A new hope for Africa. Nature. 474:S20-S21. (Article)

126. Shao, X., M. Jin, A. Guseva, C. Liu, V. Balan, D. Hogsett, B.E. Dale and L.R. Lynd. 2011. Conversion for Avicel and AFEX pretreated corn stover by Clostridium thermocellum and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: Insights into microbial conversion of pretreated cellulosic biomass. Bioresource Technol. 102:8040-8045. (Abstract)

125. Brown, S.D., A.M. Guss, T.V. Karpinets, J.M. Parks, N. Smolin, S. Yang, M.L. Land, D.M. Klingeman, A. Bhandiwad, M. Rodriguez, B. Raman, X. Shao, J.R. Mielenz, J.C. Smith, M. Keller and L.R. Lynd. 2011. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum. PNAS. 108(33):13752-13757. (Abstract)

124. Shao, X., B. Raman, M. Zhu, J.R. Mielenz, S.D. Brown, A.M. Guss, and L. R. Lynd. 2011. Mutant selection and phenotypic and genetic characterization of ethanol-tolerant strains of Clostridium thermocellum. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 92(3):641-652. (Abstract)

123. Podkaminer, K.K., X. Shao, D.A. Hogsett and L.R. Lynd. 2011. Enzyme inactivation by ethanol and development of a kinetic model for thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at 50°C with Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ALK2. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 108(6):1268-1278. (Abstract)

122. Sizova, M.V., J.A. Izquierdo, N.S. Panikov, L.R. Lynd. 2011. Cellulose- and xylan-degrading thermophilic anaerobic bacteria from biocompost. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77:2282-2291. (Abstract)

121. Profile: Lee Lynd. 2011. Nat. Biotechnol. 29:196. (Article)

120. Lynd, L.R., R.A. Aziz, C. Henrique de Brito Cruz, A.F.A. Chimphango, L.A.B. Cortez, A. Faaij, N. Greene, M. Keller, P. Osseweijer, T.L. Richard, J. Sheehan, A. Chugh, L. van der Wielen, J. Woods and W. Heber van Zyl. 2011. A global conversation about energy from biomass: The continental conventions of the global sustainable bioenergy project. Interface Focus. 1:271-279. (Abstract)

119. Tripathi, S.A., D.G. Olson, D.A. Argyros, B.B. Miller, T.F. Barrett, D.M. Murphy, J.D. McCool, A.K. Warner, V.B. Rajgarhia, L.R. Lynd, D.A. Hogsett and N.C. Caiazza. 2010. Development of pyrF-based genetic system for targeted gene deletion in Clostridium thermocellum and creation of a pta mutant. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76(19):6591-6599. (Abstract)

118. Shao, X., L. Lynd, A. Bakker, R. LaRoche, C. Wyman. 2010. Reactor scale up for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Bioproc. Biosyst. Eng. 33:485-493. (Abstract)

117. Zhang, J. and L.R. Lynd. 2010. Ethanol production from paper sludge by simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation using recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 107(2):235-244. (Abstract)

116. Lynd, L.R. and C. Henrique de Brito Cruz. 2010. Make way for ethanol. Science. 330:1176. (Article)

115. Olson, D.G., S.A. Tripathi, R.J. Giannone, J. Lo, N.C. Caiazza, D.A. Hogsett, R.L. Hettich, A.M. Guss, G. Dubrovsky, L.R. Lynd. 2010. Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. PNAS. 107(41):17727-17732. (Abstract)

114. Lynd, L.R. 2010. Bioenergy: In search of clarity. Energ. Environ. Sci. 3:1150-1152. (Abstract)

113. Shaw, A.J., D.A. Hogsett, L.R. Lynd. 2010. Natural competence in Thermoanaerobacter and Thermoanaerobacterium species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:4713-4719. (Abstract)

112. Izquierdo, J.A., M.V. Sizova, L.R. Lynd. 2010. Diversity of bacteria and glycosyl hydrolase family 48 genes in cellulolytic consortia enriched from thermophilic biocompost. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76(11):3545-3553. (Abstract)

111. Wullschleger, S.D., E.B. Davis, M.E. Borsuk, C.A. Gunderson, L.R. Lynd. 2010. Biomass production in switchgrass across the United States: Database description and determinants of yield. Agron. J. 102(4):1158-1168. (Abstract)

110. Panikov, N., L.R. Lynd. Physiological and methodological aspects of cellulolytic microbial cultures. p 644-656 In: R.H. Baltz, A.L. Demain, and J.E. Davies, eds. Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd Edition, ASM Press. Herndon, VA.

109. Tilman, D., R. Socolow, J.A. Foley, J. Hill, E. Larson, L. Lynd, S. Pacala, J. Reilly, T. Searchinger, S. Somerville, R. Williams. 2009. Response — biofuels. Science. 326:1346. (Article)

108. Dale, B.E., L. Lynd. 2010. Global sustainable bioenergy project offers a new approach to key bioenergy issues. Biofuels, Bioprod. Biorefin. 4:8-11. (Abstract)

107. Shaw, A.J., D.A. Hogsett, L.R. Lynd. 2009. Identification of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase responsible for hydrogen generation in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and demonstration of increased ethanol yield via hydrogenase knockout. J. Bacteriol. 191:6457-6464. (Abstract)

106. Zhang J., X. Shao, O.V. Townsend, L.R. Lynd. 2009. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of paper sludge to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae RWB222 — Part I: Kinetic modeling and parameters. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 104:920-931. (Abstract)

105. Zhang J., X. Shao, O.V. Townsend, L.R. Lynd. 2009. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of paper sludge to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae RWB222. Part II: Investigation of discrepancies between predicted and observed performance at high solids concentration. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 104:932-938. (Abstract)

104. Tilman, D., R. Socolow, J.A. Foley, J. Hill, E. Larson, L. Lynd, S. Pacala, J. Reilly, T. Searchinger, C. Somerville, R. Williams. 2009. Beneficial biofuels - the food, energy, and environment trilemma. Science. 325:270-271. (Article)

103. Lynd, Lee. 2009. Squaring biofuels with food. Issues Sci. Technol. 25(4):8-9.

102. Zhang, J., C. Heiss, P.G. Thorne, C. Bal, P. Azadi, L.R. Lynd. 2009. Formation of ethyl-β-xylopyranoside during simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of paper sludge. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 44:196-202. (Article)

101. Shao X., L. Lynd, C. Wyman, A. Bakker. 2009. Kinetic modeling of cellulosic biomass to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: Part I. Accommodation of intermittent feeding and analysis of staged reactors. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 102(1):59-65. (Abstract)

100. Shao X., L. Lynd, C. Wyman. 2009. Kinetic modeling of cellulosic biomass to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: Part II. Experimental validation using waste paper sludge and anticipation of CFD analysis. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 102(1):66-72. (Abstract)

99. Lynd, L.R., E.D. Larson, N. Greene, M. Laser, J. Sheehan, B.E. Dale, S. McLaughlin, M. Wang. 2009. The role of biomass in America's energy future: Framing the analysis. Biofuels, Bioprod. Biorefin. 3:113-123. (Abstract)

98. Sokhansanj, S., S. Mani, A. Turhollow, A. Kumar, D. Bransby, L. Lynd, M. Laser. 2009. Large-scale production, harvest and transport of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) — current technology and envisioning a mature technology. Biofuels, Bioprod. Biorefin. 3:124-141. (Abstract)

97. Laser, M., H. Jin, K. Jayawardhana, L.R. Lynd. 2009. Co-production of ethanol and power from switchgrass. Biofuels, Bioprod. Biorefin. 3:195-218. (Abstract)

96. Dale, B.E., M.S. Allen, M. Laser, L.R. Lynd. 2009. Protein feed coproduction in biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Biofuels, Bioprod. Biorefin. 3:219-230. (Abstract)

95. Laser, M., H. Jin, K. Jayawardhana, B.E. Dale, L.R. Lynd. 2009. Projected mature technology scenarios for conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol with co-production of thermochemical fuels, power, and/or animal feed protein. Biofuels, Bioprod. Biorefin. 3:231-246. (Abstract)

94. Laser, M., E. Larson, B. Dale, M. Wang, N. Greene, L.R. Lynd. 2009. Comparative analysis of efficiency, environmental impact, and process economics for mature biomass refining scenarios. Biofuels, Bioprod. Biorefin. 3:247-270. (Abstract)

93. Lynd, L.R. D. Currie, N. Ciazza, C. Herring, and N. Orem. 2008. Consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass to ethanol using thermophilic bacteria. Bioenergy, Part I. Bioethanol. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 5:55-74.

92. Zhang, Y-H. P., Lynd, L. R. 2008. New generation biomass processing: Consolidated bioprocessing. pp 480-494 In Himmel, Michael E. ed. Biomass Recalcitrance: Deconstructing the Plant Cell Wall for Bioenergy. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK.

91. Shaw, A.J., K. Podkaminer, S.G. Desai, J.S. Bardsley, S.R. Rogers, P.G. Thorne, D.A. Hogsett, L.R. Lynd. 2008. Metabolic engineering of a thermophilic bacterium to produce ethanol at high yield. PNAS. 105:13769-13774. (Abstract)

90. Lynd, L.R. 2008. Energy biotechnology. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 19(3):199-201. (Article)

89. (Newton) Sendich, E., M. Laser, S. Kim, H. Alizadeh, L. Laureano-Perez, B. Dale, L. Lynd. 2008. Recent process improvements for the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process and resulting reductions in minimum ethanol selling price. Bioresource Technol. 99:8429-8435. (Article)

88. Lynd, L.R., M.S. Laser, D. Bransby, B.E. Dale, B. Davison, R. Hamilton, M. Himmel, M. Keller, J.D. McMillan, J. Sheehan, C.E. Wyman. 2008. How biotech can transform biofuels. Nat. Biotechnol. 26:169-172. (Abstract)

87. Shaw, A.J., F.E. Jenney Jr., M.W.W. Adams, L.R. Lynd. 2008. End-product pathways in the xylose fermenting bacterium, Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 42(6):453-458. (Article)

86. Van Zyl, W.H., L.R. Lynd, R. den Haan, J.E. McBride. 2007. Consolidated bioprocessing for bioethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Adv. Biochem. Engin./Biotechnol. 108:205-235. (Abstract)

85. Anex, R.P., L.R. Lynd, M.S. Laser, A.H. Heggenstaller, M. Liebman. 2007. Potential for enhanced nutrient cycling through coupling of agricultural and bioenergy systems. Crop Sci. 47:1327-1335. (Abstract)

84. Zhang Y.-H.P., S.Y. Ding, J.R. Mielenz, J.-B. Cui, R.T. Elander, M.S. Laser, M.E. Himmel, J.R. McMillan, L.R. Lynd. 2007. Fractionating recalcitrant lignocellulose at modest reaction conditions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 97(2):214-223. (Abstract)

83. Den Haan, R., J.E. McBride, D.C. La Grange, L.R. Lynd, W.H. Van Zyl. 2007. Functional expression of cellobiohydrolases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae towards one-step conversion of cellulose to ethanol. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 40(5):1291-1299. (Article)

82. Fan, Z., L.R. Lynd. 2007. Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol. I: Impact of feeding frequency and mixing energy characterization. Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng. 30(1):27-34. (Abstract)

81. Fan, Z., L.R. Lynd. 2007. Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol, II: Process design and economic analysis. Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng. 30(1):35-45. (Abstract)

80. Lynd, L.R., M.S. Laser, J. McBride, K. Podkaminer, J. Hannon, 2007. Energy myth three - high land requirements and an unfavorable energy balance preclude biomass ethanol from playing a large role in providing energy services. p 75-101 In: B.K. Sovacol and M.A. Brown (eds.), Energy and American Society - Thirteen Myths. Springer. Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

79. Den Haan, R., S. Rose, L.R. Lynd, W.H. van Zyl. 2007. Hydrolysis and fermentation of amorphous cellulose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Metab. Eng. 9:87-94. (Article)

78. Lynd, L.R., N. Greene, B. Dale, M. Laser, D. Lashof, M. Wang, C. Wyman. Letters looking at biofuels and bioenergy. Science. 312:1746-1748. (Article)

77. Zhang, Y.-H.P., L.R. Lynd. 2006. Biosynthesis of radiolabeled cellodextrins by the Clostridium thermocellum cellobiose and cellodextrin phosphorylases for measurement of intracellular sugars. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 70:123-129. (Abstract)

76. Zhang, Y.-H.P., L.R. Lynd. 2006. A functionally-based model for hydrolysis of cellulose by fungal cellulase. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 94(5):888-898. (Abstract)

75. Lynd, L.R., P.J. Weimer, G. Wolfaardt, Y-H.P. Zhang. 2006. Cellulose hydrolysis by Clostridium thermocellum: A microbial perspective. pp 95-117 in Uversky, V. and Kataeva I.A., eds. Cellulosome. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Hauppauge, NY, USA.

74. Tyurin, M.V., L.R. Lynd, J. Wiegel. 2006. 13 gene transfer systems for obligately anaerobic thermophilic bacteria. In: A. Oren and F. Rainey, eds. "Extremophiles", Method Microbiol. 35:309-330. (Abstract)

73. Lu, Y., Y.-H.P. Zhang, L.R. Lynd. 2006. Enzyme-microbe synergy during cellulose hydrolysis by Clostridium thermocellum. PNAS. 103(44):16165-16169. (Abstract)

72. Tyurin, M.V., C.R. Sullivan, L.R. Lynd. 2005. Role of spontaneous current oscillations during high efficiency eletrotransformation of thermophilic anaerobes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:8069-8076. (Abstract)

71. Lynd, L.R., W.H. van Zyl, J.E. McBride, M. Laser. 2005. Consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass: An update. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16:577-583. (Abstract)

70. Zhang, Y.-H.P., L.R. Lynd. 2005. Determination of the number average degree of polymerization of cellodextrins and cellulose with application to enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomacromolecules. 6:1510-1515. (Abstract)

69. Zhang, Y.-H.P., L.R. Lynd. 2005. Cellulose utilization by Clostridium thermocellum: Bioenergetics and hydrolysis product assimilation. PNAS. 102:7321-7325. (Abstract)

68. McBride, J.E., J.J. Zietsman, W.H. Van Zyl, L.R. Lynd. 2005. Utilization of cellulobiose by recombinant β-glucosidase-expressing strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Characterization and evaluation of the sufficiency of expression. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 37:93-101. (Article)

67. Fan, Z., J.E. McBride, W.H. van Zyl, L.R. Lynd. 2005. Theoretical analysis of selection-based strain improvement for microorganisms with growth dependent upon extracytoplasmic enzymes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 92:35-44. (Abstract)

66. Zhang, Y.-H.P, L.R. Lynd. 2005. Regulation of cellulase synthesis in batch and continuous cultures of Clostridium thermocellum. J. Bacteriol. 187:99-106. (Abstract)

65. Greene, N., F.E. Celik, B. Dale, M. Jackson, K. Jayawardhana, H. Jin, E.D. Larson, M. Laser, L. Lynd, D. MacKenzie, J. Mark, J. McBride, S. McLaughlin, D. Saccardi. 2004. Growing energy. How biofuels can help end America's oil dependence. Natural Resources Defense Council, New York. http://www.nrdc.org/air/energy/biofuels/biofuels.pdf

64. Zhang, Y.-H.P, L.R. Lynd. 2004. Toward an aggregated understanding of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: Non-complexed cellulase systems. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 88:797-824. (Abstract)

63. Zhang, Y.-H.P., L.R. Lynd. 2004. Kinetics and relative importance of phosphorolytic and hydrolytic cleavage of cellodextrins and cellobiose in cell extracts of Clostridium thermocellum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:1563-1569. (Abstract)

62. Tyurin, M., S.G. Desai, L.R. Lynd. 2004. Electrotransformation of Clostridium thermocellum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:883-890. (Abstract)

61. Lynd, L.R., M.Q. Wang. 2004. A product-nonspecific framework for evaluating the potential of biomass-based products to displace fossil fuels. J. Ind. Ecol. 7:17-32. (Abstract)

60. Desai, S.G., M.L. Guerinot, L.R. Lynd. 2004. Cloning of L-lactate dehydrogenase and elimination of lactic acid production via gene knockout in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum JW/SL-YS485. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 65:600-605. (Abstract)

59. Ozkan, M., E. Yllmaz, L.R. Lynd, G. Ozcengiz. 2004. Cloning and expression of the Clostridium thermocellum L-lactate dehydrogenase gene in Escherichia coli and enzyme characterization. Can. J. Microbiol. 50:845-851. (Abstract)

58. Zhang, Y., L.R. Lynd. 2003. Quantification of cell and cellulase mass concentrations during anaerobic cellulase fermentation: Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based method with applications to Clostridium thermocellum batch cultures. Anal. Chem. 75:219-227. (Abstract)

57. Zhang, Y.-H.P., L.R. Lynd. 2003. Cellodextrin preparation by mixed-acid hydrolysis and chromatographic separation. Anal. Biochem. 322:225-232. (Abstract)

56. Lynd, L.R., H. van Blottnitz, B. Tait, J. de Boer, I.S. Pretorius, K. Rumbold, W.H. van Zyl. 2003. Converting plant biomass to fuels and commodity chemicals in South Africa: A third chapter? S. Afr. J. Sci. 99:499-507. (Abstract)

55. Lynd, L.R., H. Jin, J.G. Michels, C.E. Wyman, B.E. Dale. 2003. Bioenergy: Background, potential, and policy. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Washington, DC.

54. Fan, Z., C. South, K. Lyford, J. Munsie, P. van Walsum, L.R. Lynd. 2003. Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol in a semincontinous solids-fed reactor. Bioproc. Biosys. Eng. 26:93-101. (Abstract)

53. Lynd, L.R., P.J. Weimer, W.H. van Zyl, I.S. Pretorius. 2002. Microbial cellulose utilization: Fundamentals and biotechnology. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 66:506-577. (Abstract)

52. McLaughlin, S.G., D.G. De La Toree Ugarte, C.T. Garten, Jr., L.R. Lynd, M.A. Sanderson, V.R. Tolbert, D.D. Wolf. 2002. High-value renewable energy from prairie grasses. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36:2122-2129. (Abstract)

51. Laser, M., D. Schulman, S.G. Allen, J. Lichwa, M.J. Antal, Jr., L.R. Lynd. 2002. A comparison of liquid hot water and steam pretreatments of sugar cane bagasse for bioconversion to ethanol. Bioresource. Technol. 81:33-44. (Abstract)

50. Lynd, L.R., Y. Zhang. 2002. Quantitative determination of cellulase concentration as distinct from cell concentration in studies of microbial cellulose utilization: Analytical framework and methodological approach. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 77:467-475. (Abstract)

49. Ozkan, M., S.G. Desai, Y. Zhang, D.M. Stevenson, J. Beane, E.A. White, M.L. Guerinot, L.R. Lynd. 2001. Characterization of 13 newly isolated strains of anaerobic, cellulolytic, thermophilic bacteria. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biot. 27:275-280. (Abstract)

48. Allen S.G., D. Schulman, J. Lichwa, M.J. Antal Jr., M. Laser, L.R. Lynd. 2001. A comparison between hot liquid water and steam fractionation of corn fiber. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 40:2934-2941. (Abstract)

47. Lynd, L.R., S. Baskaran, S. Casten. 2001. Salt accumulation resulting from base added for pH control, and not ethanol, limits growth of Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum HG-8 at elevated feed xylose concentrations in continuous culture. Biotechnol. Prog. 17:118-125. (Abstract)

46. Lynd, L.R., K. Lyford, C.R. South, G.P. Van Walsum, K. Levenson. 2001. Evaluation of paper sludges for amenability to enzymatic hydrolysis and conversion to ethanol. TAPPI J. 84(2):50. (Abstract)

45. Lynd, L.R., C.E. Wyman, T.U. Gerngross. 1999. Biocommodity engineering. Biotechnol. Prog. 15:777-793. (Abstract)

44. Ozcengiz, G., J.-H. Kim, W.R. Lin, E. Ozcengiz, D. Westenberg, L.R. Lynd, A.L. Demain. 1998. Superiority of the PCR-based approach for cloning the acetate kinase gene of Clostridium thermocellum. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biot. 21:145-149. (Abstract)

43. Garant, H., L.R. Lynd. 1998. Applicability of competitive and non-competitive kinetics to the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 57:751-755. (Abstract)

42. van Walsum, P., L.R. Lynd. 1998. Allocation of ATP to synthesis of cells and hydrolytic enzymes in celluloytic fermentative microorganisms: Bioenergetics, kinetics, and bioprocessing. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 58:316-320. (Abstract)

41. Allen, S.G., M.J. Spencer, M.J. Antal Jr., M.S. Laser, L.R. Lynd. 1997. Hot liquid water pretreatment of lignocellulosics at high solids concentration. In: Developments in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion. Eds: A.V. Bridgwater, D.G.B. Boocock. Blackie Academic & Professional, London; pp. 765-772.

40. Lynd, L.R. 1997. Cellulose ethanol: Technology in relation to environmental goals and policy formulation. Peer-reviewed chapter, J. DeCicco and M. DeLucchi, eds. Transportation, Energy, and Environment: How Far Can Technology Take Us? American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Press, Washington. p 109-134.

39. DeCicco, J., L.R. Lynd. 1997. Combining vehicle efficiency and renewable biofuels to reduce light vehicle oil use and CO2 emissions. Peer-reviewed chapter in, J. DeCicco and M. DeLucchi, eds. Transportation, Energy, and Environment: How Far Can Technology Take Us? American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Press, Washington. p. 75-108.

38. van Walsum, G.P., S.G. Allen, M.J. Spencer, M.S. Laser, M.J. Antal, L.R. Lynd. 1996. Conversion of lignocellulosics pretreated with liquid hot water to ethanol. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 57/58:157-170. (Abstract)

37. Demain, A.L., T.R. Klapatch, K.H. Jung, L.R. Lynd. Recombinant DNA technology in development of an economical conversion of waste to liquid fuel. Recombinant DNA Biotechnology III: the Integration of Biological and Engineering Sciences. pp 402-412. ed. Juan A. Asenjo and Barbara A. Andrews. The New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY, 1996.

36. Garant, H., L.R. Lynd. 1996. Perchloroethylene utilization by methanogenic fed-batch cultures. Appl. Biochem. & Biotech. 57/58:895-904. (Abstract)

35. Klapatch, T.R., M.L. Guerinot, L.R. Lynd. 1996. Electrotransformation of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. J. Ind. Microbiol. 16:342-347. (Abstract)

34. Klapatch, T.R., A.L. Demain, L.R. Lynd. 1996. Restriction endonuclease activity in Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 45:127-131. (Abstract)

33. Lynd, L.R. 1996. Overview and evaluation of fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass: Technology, economics, the environment, and policy. Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 21:403-465. (Abstract)

32. Lynd, L.R., R.T. Elander, C.E. Wyman. 1996. Likely features and costs of mature biomass ethanol technology. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 57/58:741-761. (Abstract)

31. Ahn, H.J., L.R. Lynd. 1996. Cellulose degradation and ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria using mineral growth medium. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 57/58:599-604. (Abstract)

30. Baskaran, S., D.A.L. Hogsett, L.R. Lynd. 1995. Optimization of a chemically defined, minimal medium for Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. Appl. Biochem. & Biotechnol. 51/52:399-411. (Abstract)

29. Stone, K., L.R. Lynd. 1995. Analysis of internal and external energy flows associated with projected process improvements in biomass ethanol production. Appl. Biochem. & Biotechnol. 51/52:569-584. (Abstract)

28. Baskaran, S., H-J. Ahn, L.R. Lynd. 1995. Investigation of the ethanol tolerance of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum in continuous culture. Biotechnol. Prog. 11:276-281. (Abstract)

27. Lynd, L.R. 1995. Biological fuel production, pp 331-335. In R.A. Meyers, ed., Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, VCH Publishing, N.Y.

26. South, C.R., D.A. Hogsett, L.R. Lynd. 1995. Modeling simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lignocellulose to ethanol in batch and continuous reactors. Enz. Microb. Technol. 17:797-803. (Abstract)

25. Klapatch, T.R., D.A. Hogsett, S. Baskaran, S. Pal, L.R. Lynd. 1994. Organism development and characterization for ethanol production using thermophilic bacteria. Appl. Biochem. & Biotechnol. 45:209-223. (Abstract)

24. South, C.R., L.R. Lynd. 1994. Analysis of conversion of particulate biomass to ethanol in continuous solids retaining and cascade bioreactors. Appl. Biochem. & Biotechnol. 45/46:467-481. (Abstract)

23. Bernardez, T.D., K. Lyford, L.R. Lynd. 1994. Kinetics of the extracellular cellulases of Clostridium thermocellum acting on pretreated mixed hardwood and avicel. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 41:620-625. (Abstract)

22. Bernardez, T.D., K. Lyford, D.A. Hogsett, L.R. Lynd. 1993. Adsorption of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulases onto pretreated mixed hardwood, avicel, and lignin. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 42:899-907. (Abstract)

21. Hill, P.W., T.K. Klapatch, L.R. Lynd. 1993. Bioenergetics and end product regulation of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum in response to nutrient limitation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 42:873-883. (Abstract)

20. South, C.R., D.A. Hogsett, L.R. Lynd. 1993. Continuous fermentation of cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 39/40:587-600. (Abstract)

19. Hogsett, D.A., H.-J. Ahn, T.D. Bernardez, C.R. South, L.R. Lynd. 1992. Direct microbial conversion: Prospects, progress, and obstacles. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 34/35:527-541. (Abstract)

18. Clancy, P.B., N. Venkataraman, L.R. Lynd. 1992. Biochemical inhibition of sulfate reduction in batch and continuous anaerobic digesters. Wat. Sci. & Technol. 25(7):51-60. (Abstract)

17. Busche, R.M., C.D. Scott, B.H. Davison, L.R. Lynd. 1992. Ethanol: The ultimate feedstock: A technoeconomic evaluation of ethanol manufacture in fluidized bed bioreactors operating with immobilized cells. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 34/35:395-417. (Abstract)

16. Lynd, L.R., J.H. Cushman, R.J. Nichols, C.E. Wyman. 1991. Fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Science. 251:1318-1323. (Abstract)

15. Lynd, L.R., H-J. Ahn, G. Andersen, P. Hill, D.S. Kersey, T.A. Klapatch. 1991. Thermophilic ethanol production: Investigation of ethanol yield and tolerance in continuous culture. Appl. Biochem. and Biotechnol. 28/29:549-570. (Abstract)

14. Lynd, L.R. 1990. Large scale fuel ethanol from lignocellulose: Potential, economics, and research priorities. Appl. Biochem. and Biotechnol. 24/25:695-719; also appended to Analysis of the Environmental Effects of Ethanol as an Automotive Fuel. US EPA, Office of Mobile Sources, 1990. (Abstract)

13. Lynd, L.R. 1989. Application of material and energy balances to biological systems. Pg. 29-50 In: M. Shuler (editor), Chemical Engineering Problems in Biotechnology, AIChE Press, N.Y. 1989.

12. Lynd, L.R., H.E. Grethlein, R.H. Wolkin. 1989. Fermentation of cellulosic substrates in batch and continuous culture by Clostridium thermocellum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:3131-3139. (Abstract)

11. Lynd, L.R. 1989. Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials using thermophilic bacteria: Critical evaluation of potential and review. Pp 1-52 In A. Fiechter, ed., Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, Vol. 38, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. (Abstract)

10. Torres, J.L., H.E. Grethlein, L.R. Lynd. 1989. Computer simulation of the Dartmouth process for separation of dilute ethanol/water mixtures. Appl. Biochem. and Biotechnol. 20/21:621-633. (Abstract)

9. Lynd, L.R., H.E. Grethlein. 1987. Hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated mixed hardwood and purified microcrystalline cellulose by cell-free broth from Clostridium thermocellum. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 29:92-100. (Abstract)

8. Lynd, L.R., R.H. Wolkin, H.E. Grethlein. 1987. Continuous fermentation of pretreated hardwood and avicel by Clostridium thermocellum. Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. Series. 17:265-274.

7. Lynd, L.R., H.E. Grethlein. 1986. Distillation with intermediate heat pumps and optimal sidestream return. AIChE J. 32:1347-1359. (Abstract)

6. Grous, W., A. Converse, H. Grethlein, L. Lynd. 1985. Kinetics of cellobiose hydrolysis using cellobiase composites from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 27:463-470. (Abstract)

5. Lynd, L.R., and H. E. Grethlein. 1984. IHOSR/Extractive distillation for ethanol separation. Chem. Eng. Prog. 81:59-62.

4. Lynd, L., J.G. Zeikus. 1983. Metabolism of H2/CO2, methanol, and glucose by Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. J. Bacteriol. 153:1415-1423. (Abstract)

3. Lynd, L., R. Kerby, J.G. Zeikus. 1982. Carbon monoxide metabolism of the methylotrophic acidogen Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. J. Bacteriol. 149:255-263. (Abstract)

2. Lynd, L., and J. G. Zeikus. 1980. Methanol and carbon monoxide metabolism of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, the marburg strain. In: A. Holleander (ed) Symposium on Trends in the Biology of Fermentation's for Fuels and Chemicals, Plenum Press, New York.

1. Zeikus, J.G., L.R. Lynd, T.E. Thompson, J.A. Kryzcki, P.J. Weimer, P.W. Hegge. 1980. Isolation and characterization of a new methylotrophic, acidogenic anaerobe, the marburg strain. Curr. Microbiol. 3:381-386. (Abstract)